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  SENARAI ABSTRAK **TERKINI 1**

Aplikasi Konsep ‘Umra Dan Ruqba Dalam Produk-Produk Hibah Di Syarikat-Syarikat Amanah Di Malaysia
Nasrul Hisyam Nor Muhamad
 
Industri pengamanahan harta di Malaysia masa kini sedang mendapat sambutan di kalangan masyarkat Islam. Hibah (gift inter vivos) adalah antara produk amanah yang ditawarkan. Sebahagian daripada produk hibah yang terdapat di syarikat-syarikat amanah meletakkan ‘umra dan ruqba sebagai syarat antara penghibah dan penerima dengan pemegang amanah. Kertas kerja ini bertujuan mengkaji dan menganalisis konsep ‘umra dan ruqba mengikut perspektif undang-undang hibah Islam yang meliputi pandangan para fuqaha’ mengenai kedua-dua konsep tersebut serta mengkaji aplikasi dua konsep tersebut dalam produk-produk hibah masa kini di syarikat-syarikat amanah di Malaysia serta meneliti justifikasi penawarannya
 
 
Konsep Al-Hisbah Menurut Qādi al-Qudah Al-Māwardī (M. 450 H/1058 M): Tinjauan Ringkas Terhadap Perlaksanaannya Dalam Sistem Ekonomi Islam
Jasri Jamal
 
 
Sistem Kehakiman terbahagi kepada tiga bentuk dimensi yang utama iaitu al-Qa±ā, pentadbiran keadilan Islam, al-Maµālim dan al-Hisbah. Aqā’ al-Qudāh, al-Māwardī (m. 450/1058) telah menyentuh ketiga-tiga institusi ini bagi menjadi panduan kepada pemerintah negara agar konsep keadilan dalam Islam dapat dinikmati oleh rakyat menerusi karya beliau yang terkenal iaitu al-A¯kām al-Sul³āniyyah dan Adab al-Qā±ī. Kertas kerja ini hanya menumpukan isu yang berkaitan dengan institusi Hisbah dan mekanismenya berdasarkan kepada pemikiran al-Māwardī khususnya berkaitan dengan sistem ekonomi negara.
The Institution of Hisbah: Its Roles in Nurting Fair and Just Economic System in Islam
Fauzan Saleh
 
Islam is deeply concerned with the fair and just economic system. Generally speaking, it deals with the moral issues in doing business and all economic transactions. From its earliest emergence, Islam has strongly emphasized the necessity of maintaining the validity of business transaction and to avoid all types of fraud for a particular interest. The Prophet himself was reported to have frequently inspected the market places to make sure that people do their business fairly, no cheating and no fraudulence. Maintaining just and fair business is absolutely a prerequisite for establishing prosperity. Nevertheless, it is not always easy to sustain fairness to make a good profit. Many tend to ignore it, as if it will be too unbending to follow all ethical norms and regulations to make good profits. In Islam, the duty of safeguarding the proper standards of religious morality, including those in business enterprise, becomes the ultimate responsibility of the state. The establishment of the hisbah institution is meant to assist people obediently follow these proper standards of morality. In business enterprise, the role of this institution is of a particular interest, because it is only through keeping it in function that economic system, as sanctioned in Islamic belief, will make a great benefit for nurturing a fair and just economy. In turns, it is through maintaining a just and fair economy that the prosperity will prevail for the common well-being. This paper will examine how the institution of hisbah is developed in the Islamic economic system and how it functions in the history of Islamic economy, as well as how it applicably survives in the modern world under the domination of Western-secular economic system.
 
A Preliminary Study On The Level Of Knowledge And Understanding Among Muslims Towards The Concepts, Arabic And Shariah Terms In Takaful
Mohamad Abdul Hamid, Mohd Sukki Othman
 
The word takaful is derived from an Arabic word of kafala which means to guarantee, looking after or trust. The noun takaful is derived from adverbs takafala which literally translates to “looking after one another”. The market share of takaful in insurance industry was only 5.9 percent. It is extremely low compared to 31 percent for the conventional insurance market. Why is it low compared with conventional insurance despite the existence of takaful in Malaysia for more than 20 years since 1984? This study tries to investigate this issue by conducting a preliminary study on the level of knowledge and understanding of people among Muslims in Malaysia towards the concepts, Arabic and shariah terms in takaful. A sample of 500 banking customers among Muslims in Kuala Lumpur was surveyed. Out of 500 questionnaires distributed, 232 (46.4%) were returned. Surprisingly, majority of the respondents (67.24%) do not know and understand about tabarru’ which is the main and core feature of takaful that is totally different from conventional insurance. Most of the respondents do not know and understand about the concept that is newly practiced in takaful i.e. al-ujrah (commission) and al-wakalah (agent). Unfortunately, majority of the respondents (68%) do not know and understand about the elements of gharar and maysir which make the conventional insurance is against the principles of shariah. Interestingly, majority of the respondents (74.14%) have agreed with the use of Arabic terms in takaful. It is found that the most reasons quoted by the respondents are to differentiate the takaful from conventional insurance and to show that takaful promotes the Islamic finance products. Some of the findings in this paper may be useful for the takaful companies in their effort to enhance their marketing and promotion activities.
Aplikasi Kontrak Fiqh Dalam Pembangunan Tanah Pertanian
Muhammad Hakimi Mohd Shafiai
 
 
Kajian ini menganalisis prinsip fiqh yang dipraktikkan dalam pembangunan tanah iaitu prinsip al-muzara‘ah dan al-musaqah. Kedua-dua prinsip ini merupakan suatu kontrak kerjasama iaitu perkongsian hasil antara pengusaha dan pemilik tanah dalam membangunkan tanah pertanian. Kontrak perkongsian yang berasaskan kedua-dua prinsip ini bukan sahaja dapat dibuat antara dua individu, malahan mampu dikembangkan secara meluas dalam peringkat organisasi seperti felcra berhad dan felda. Ini adalah kerana hubungan antara tuan tanah dengan pengusaha adalah berhubung secara simbiosis iaitu saling memerlukan. Oleh itu, kertas ini memberi fokus kepada sejauh mana prinsip al-muzara‘ah dan al-musaqah dapat membentuk suatu rangka kerja yang efektif dan efisyen dalam pembangunan tanah yang produktif demi kesejahteraan negara.
 
 
 
Potensi Industri Perisian Permainan Komputer (Computer Software Games) Sebagai Sumber Ekonomi Baru Masyarakat Islam.
 Abdul Manaf Bohari,  Ruzana Zawani Shamsudin
 
Dalam konteks pasaran semasa bagi perisian permainan komputer (computer software games), didapati bahawa terdapat pelbagai jenis perisian permainan dibangunkan sebagai memenuhi permintaan mendadak para pengguna termasuklah di kalangan pengguna Islam. Antara perisian permainan yang popular ialah Bingo, Doom, Dart, Storm, dan sebagainya. Walaupun perisian permainan seringkali dikaitkan dengan gelaja negatif, namun industri perisian permainan ini sebenarnya mempunyai peranan penting dalam mempertingkatkan prestasi ekonomi sesebuah negara sekaligus menyumbang kepada keluaran dalam negara kasar (KNDK). Untuk itu, objektif kertas kerja ini membincangkan potensi industri perisian permainan sebagai sumber ekonomi baru masyarakat Islam khususnya di Malaysia. Rasionalnya, ekonomi Islam harus menerokai dan mengeksploitasi sektor perisian permainan komputer sebagai sumber ekonomi baru menjamin kelangsungan dan daya tahan industri khususnya pada masa hadapan. Dalam pada itu tuntutan semasa arus global IT perniagaan juga dilihat sebagai desakan yang mendorong penerimaan industri perisian permainan di usahawan peniaga Islam. Akhir sekali, cadangan dikemukakan bagi membangunkan kandungan perisian permainan komputer agar ianya berlandaskan syariat Islam. Ini adalah penting agar sektor perisian permainan komputer yang Islamik dapat dibangunkan dalam kerangka sistem ekonomi Islam.
 
Kadar Pulangan Deposit Perbankan Islam Dengan Kadar Bunga Di Malaysia: Satu Analisis Penumpuan Stokastik
Mansor Jusoh, Antoni Yoga
 
 
Sistem perbankan Malaysia dicirikan oleh sistem perbankan berkembar dalam erti kata perbankan Islam dan konvensional wujud bersama-sama dan bersaing dalam satu pasaran. Pada prinsipnya perbankan Islam menawarkan deposit yang berbeza berbanding perbankan konvensional. Perbezaan ini beserta wujudnya segmen pasaran yang khusus untuknya membolehkan perbankan Islam mempunyai kadar pulangan bagi deposit yang berbeza dan mungkin bergerak pada arah yang berlainan berbanding kadar bunga bagi deposit perbankan konvensional. Bagaimana pun, data dan analisis empirik terdahulu mendapati kadar pulangan umumnya lebih rendah dan mengekori (ahmad kaleem dan mansor md isa 2006) dan berkointegrasi, iaitu seolah-olah perbankan Islam mengabaikan prinsip perkongsian untung dan sebaliknya memancang kadar pulangan kepada kadar bunga deposit konvensional (chong dan liu 2008). Kajian ini menggunakan ujian penumpuan stokastik bernard dan durlauf (1996) untuk menentukan arah hubungan jangka panjang antara kadar pulangan dengan kadar bunga deposit perbankan dengan pelbagai tempoh matang. Berdasarkan dapatan kajian dapat ditentukan sama ada perbankan Islam cukup kuat dalam persaingan mendapatkan deposit sehingga boleh menentukan kadar pulangan tanpa bersandar kepada kadar bunga perbankan konvensional, atau sebaliknya.
 
 
 
Analisis Prestasi dan Kecekapan Sistem Perbankan Islam di Malaysia dari 2005-2007
Noor Hasyimah Sulaiman,Noor Hasiah Sulaiman
 
The Islamic banking in Malaysia was established in 1983. It’s beginning with Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) which commenced operations on 1 July 1983. As at January 2008, twelve full-fledge Islamic Bank under the Islamic Banking Act 1983 and eight commercial banking under Islamic Banking Scheme (SPI) offering Islamic banking products and services in Malaysia. According to Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM), the long- term objectives of BNM is to create an efficient, progressive and comprehensive Islamic financial system that contributes significantly to the effectiveness and efficiency of Malaysian sector. In light of above, this paper will analyze, first: the performance of selected Islamic Banking using financial ratio analysis and based on the time series analysis. This study investigates the performance of selected Islamic Banking in three years, start from 2005 until 2007. Second: compare about the performance of selected Islamic banking institutions in term of profitability, liquidity, and leverage and capital adequacy ratio. Third: prospect and countributionof Islamic banking towards Malaysian economic.
 
The Productivity Of Islamic Banking In Malaysia
Mariani Abdul-Majid
 
This Study Employs A Generalised Malmquist Productivity Index In Decomposing Productivity Change Into Efficiency, Technical, And Scale Change To Analyze Malaysian Commercial Banks During 1996-2002, And Particularly Focuses On Specifically Concentrate On The Relative Performance Of Islamic Banks. On Average, Malaysian Banks Experience Mild Decreasing Return To Scale And Annual Productivity Change Of 2.37 Percent, With The Latter Driven Primarily By Technical Change, Which Has Declined Over Time. The Productivity Estimates Indicate That The Potential For Full-Fledged Islamic Banks And Conventional Banks With Islamic Banking Operations To Overcome The Output Disadvantages Associated With Islamic Banking Are Relatively Limited. Finally, Merged Banks Are Found To Have Lower Productivity Change, Suggesting That Bank Mergers Have Not Contributed Positively To Bank Performance. 
 
 
Kitaran Ekonomi Dalam Risiko Kredit Perbankan Islam
Ahmad Azam Sulaiman @ Mohamad
 
Kajian ini menyediakan bukti baru kesan risiko kredit terhadap sistem perbankan Islam di Malaysia. Untuk menyiasat kesan risiko kredit perbankan Islam, model dalam firma perbankan Islam dibangunkan.Untuk penganggaran model, set data panel bank Islam yang tidak berimbang untuk 20 bank Islam digunakan. Data tahunan yang diambil meliputi tempoh masa dari 1994 hingga 2007. Dalam tempoh tersebut, kelakuan keseluruhan kitaran ekonomi Malaysia di ambilkira, iaitu fakta penting yang mengarah kepada matlamat utama kajian untuk menganalisa samada wujud hubungan antara kesan risiko kredit dan kelakuan bank Islam merentasi kitaran ekonomi. Hubungan langsung antara risiko kredit dan kitaran ekonomi menawarkan beberapa sokongan sistem perbankan Islam berhati-hati semasa ekonomi sedang mengembang kerana mengambil kira dengan ciri-ciri semula jadi kitaran ekonomi dan melakukan penganggaran risiko semasa berlaku ekonomi mengembang
 
Islamic Banking In Malaysia: Comparative Performance Of Foreign And Local Banks
Yap Pei Ling
 
This is an empirical study which compares the performance between Islamic windows of the foreign and local conventional banks in Malaysia for the period 2002-2006 by using descriptive and trend analysis to compare the performance in terms of growth and sectoral contribution to the economy. This study found that, the foreign ibs (Islamic banking scheme) banks performed better than the local ibs banks in terms of asset, deposit, financing and investment growth. It is also found that the foreign ibs banks as a group is the main contributor of financing to the agricultural sector compared with the local ibs banks. However, ibs bank financing to the secondary and services sectors are dominated by the local ibs banks. Local ibs banks tend to channel their secondary sector financing to the property sector whilst the foreign ibs banks concentrate on the manufacturing sector. Most of the foreign ibs bank financing in the services sector go to consumption credit whilst the local ibs banks focus on transport vehicles financing. In conclusion, this study shows that the local ibs banks play a significant role in financing the secondary and services sectors. However, it is recommended that the local ibs banks should channel more financing and investment to the agricultural sector which is currently highly financed by foreign ibs banks.
 
 
Isu Terkini Berkaitan Sistem Perbankan Islam : Analisis Menurut Undang-Undang di Malaysia
Mohamad Syafiqe Abdul Rahim
 
Umum mengetahui bahawa sistem perbankan Islam di Malaysia semakin berkembang kini. Ini dapat dilihat berdasarkan kepada pengenalan pelbagai produk-produk berasaskan kontrak Islam. Walaubagaimanapun, perlu diingat bahawa pelaksanaan sistem perbankan Islam yang lengkap seharusnya tidak mengabaikan aspek kerangka perundangan yang terpakai padanya. Ini kerana, didapati masih terdapat beberapa isu yang timbul khususnya apabila sesuatu kes perbankan Islam dibawa untuk penghakiman di Mahkamah Sivil. Artikel ini secara ringkas akan menganalisis beberapa isu tersebut dengan menjadikan beberapa penghakiman kes perbankan Islam terkini di Malaysia sebagai rujukan.
 
Mencari Paradigma Baru Total Quality Management (TQM) Syari’ah
Nur Chamid
 
Dalam dekade terakhir ini, sistem ekonomi dan keuangan Islam telah mencapai pertumbuhan positif dan transformasi yang menakjubkan. Ekonomi dan keuangan Islam telah menampilkan sebuah industri berkekuatan jutaan dolar dan membawa banyak peluang untuk berkompetisi.
Perkembangan yang signifikan dalam ekonomi keuangan syariah menghadirkan sejumlah tantangan. Untuk merespon dengan efektif berbagai tantangan ini, institusi keuangan Islam harus mampu membangun sistem manajemen yang mengintegrasikan manajemen mutu, kreativitas dan inovasi. PencIPTAan sistem terhadap institusi keuangan Islam yang memenuhi level ‘quality’ yang sesuai dengan konsep syariah menjadi isu vital nyata yang menantang. Institusi keuangan Islam harus membangun sistem manajemen mutu yang mengintegrasikan kebutuhan atas level ‘quality’ dan prinsip syariah ke dalam sebuah praktek nyata. Tidak bisa dipungkiri, salah satu tuntutan global agar industri keuangan syariah mampu bersaing adalah tercIPTAnya mutu.
 
Mutu hanya bisa dicapai melalui sebuah perbaikan terus menerus. Salah satu filosofi kontemporer yang mengumandangkan upaya perbaikan terus menerus adalah filosofi TQM. Intisari dari TQM ternyata sejalan dengan nilai-nilai yang diajarkan Islam. Sayangnya, belum banyak kajian-kajian yang menyelidiki lebih jauh keterkaitan dan kesesuaian teori-teori TQM kontemporer dengan prinsip-prinsip syariah. Kebanyakan organisasi berbasis syariah mengadopsi secara total model-model TQM kontemporer beserta turunannya. Namun, sejumlah organisasi lainnya sudah mulai mencoba mengembangkan model-model baru yang disesuaikan dengan prinsip-prinsip syariah. Tidak ada model yang terbaik. Kajian-kajian perlu terus dikembangkan untuk menemukan formulasi generik yang dapat digunakan dan disesuaikan dengan karakter yang melekat pada organisasi, utamanya melalui pendekatan teori-teori kontemporer yang disesuaikan dengan kaidah-kaidah syariah.
 
Islamic Finance Programmes in Malaysian Universities : An Assessment of Content
Shahida Shahimi, Suhaili Alma’amun, Mehmet Asutay
 
The changing landscape of Islamic financial services has been very influential not only in Malaysia but also at the international level. To facilitate this industry’s participation in the fast changing environment due to globalization and financial liberalization, the need to upgrade and equip the industry is becoming more apparent. Today, many universities report record numbers of students enrolling in Islamic finance and related courses. The Islamic financial industry shows strong interest in hiring qualified graduates, and the latter see exciting employment opportunities. This paper is intended to give the reader an insight into existing Islamic finance and related programmes offered by Malaysian universities. By evaluating the relevance and effectiveness of their contents, this paper is carried out in order to examine to what extend does Malaysian universities are capable of nourishing the Islamic financial industry with quality human capital, locally and internationally. Relevant policy implications are also proffered in the paper.
 

Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti (SPK) ISO 9000 Sebagai Kaedah Penghasilan Barangan Dan Perkhidmatan Berkualiti : Satu Tinjauan Daripada Perspektif Islam.
Siti Arni Basir, Bharudin Che Pa, Raja Hisyamudin Raja Sulong
 
 
Adalah menjadi matlamat mana-mana organisasi untuk menghasilkan barangan dan perkhidmatan yang mencapai standard yang tinggi bagi memenuhi kehendak pelanggan dan masyarakat. Dengan taraf hidup yang lebih baik dan sumber maklumat yang pelbagai, masyarakat kini lebih selektif terhadap barangan dan perkhidmatan yang mereka gunakan. Dalam konteks ini, (SPK) ISO 9001 sebagai satu standard kualiti antarabangsa boleh digunapakai bagi menghasilkan barangan dan perkhidmatan berkualiti. Kertas kerja ini akan membincangkan tentang mengapa pentingnya organisasi menghasilkan barangan dan perkhidmatan bermutu tinggi. Perbincangan selanjutnya adalah mengenai bagaimana (SPK) ISO 9001 dengan diberi suntikan yang ditekankan dalam Islam iaitu nilai, moral dan aspek-aspek kemanusiaan akan membantu organisasi mencapai matlamat menghasilkan barangan dan perkhidmatan berkualiti.Fokus utama yang diberi suntikan nilai Islam ialah aspek penambahbaikan berterusan yang meliputi 3 perkara iaitu i) kepimpinan, ii) fokus kepada pembangunan manusia, dan iii) penghormatan kepada seluruh tenaga kerja dan perlaksanaan syura.
 

The Halal Food Industry : Current Developments And Future Challenges
Cheng Wei Hin, Abdul Manaf Bohari
 
It is the responsibility of every Muslims to ensure hygiene, cleanliness and not detrimental to their health and well-being in whatever they consume. This all encompassing concept is known as Halal and the benchmark for quality. Halal, in Arabic word means permissible or lawful for Muslims. Halal also refers to whatever is permitted by Syariah (Syariah is the Arabic meaning for the code of life or law which regulates all aspects of a Muslim life) and applies to every activity carried out by mankind. Halal when used in relation to the economy, refers to business conducted in a manner deemed permissible in Islam; and in relation to food, Halal refers to food which is in compliance with the laws of Islam. The paper aims to understand the halal food industry in Malaysia by assessing its current developments and future developments. It also examines the potential, opportunities and challenges of Halal industry in Malaysia. Analysis of industry profile and its competitive forces would also be covered in the paper. The paper concludes with the futures and challenges of the industry.
 
Islamic Corporate Finance Through Diminish Musharkah Financing Mode
Ahcene Lahsasna
Corporate finance as form of a business organization includes entrepreneurship, sole proprietorship, partnership and corporation. One of the challenges faces by the modern firm corporate is the working capital and financial support to their gradual business expansion in the market, therefore the financial aspect is always consider as crucial impediment for the business growth of corporate firm. In this context this paper is addressing the above issue and providing one of the financial solution to the issue from Islamic perspective by discussing the scheme of diminish musharakah financing mode as an Islamic financial approach to support the corporate firm in the industry, this approach is a form of partnership which was developed recently by the Islamic financial industry in order to meet the requirement of the corporate finance need. In this financing model the Islamic banks or the Islamic financial institutions agree as financier to transfer gradually to the corporate firm shares in the musharakah structure, so that the Islamic bank’s share declines and the client (corporate firm) share increases until the latter becomes the sole proprietor of the venture. According to this concept, a financier and the corporate firm participate either in the joint ownership of a property or an equipments such a machines, or in a joint commercial enterprise. The share of the financier is further divided into a number of units base on the mutual agreement of the two partners, and it is understood that the corporate firm will purchase the units of the share of the financier one by one periodically according to the scheme of diminish musharakah, thus increasing corporate firm own share until all the units of the financier are purchased by corporate firm so as to make him the sole owner of the property or the commercial enterprise. This scheme is very useful for the industry and consider very stable mode in corporate finance which support the financial needs of the corporate firm at large.

Equity Financing: Prospects For Wider Application By Islamic Banks
Muhammad Abdurrahman Sadique
 
Equity financing seeks to achieve mutual sharing of risks pertaining to the enterprise and an equitable distribution of the return. Application of equity financing modes in Islamic banking is seen to be less developed, and configured in a manner that downplays their true potential. Some equity modes in vogue embody aspects more reflective of debt financing. Continued operation of these modes could not be expected to realise the fruits of Islamic economic ideals. To promote equity modes, some restriction should be introduced on the proliferation of debt-based schemes in areas of financing. Equity modes currently utilised could be further upgraded to ensure sharī‛ah compliance while realising their socioeconomic objectives.   The aspect of existence and availability of capital at the formation of equity partnership should be reassessed, as considerable emphasis has been placed on it in shari’ah. The mechanism employed by Islamic banks in deciding the ratio of profit sharing may require further refinement. Adopting an equity format could solve problems faced in debt-based project financing from an Islamic perspective, in addition to realising justice and fair play. 
  
Perkembangan Aliran Pembiayaan Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) Berdasarkan Jenis Kontrak Muamalah Dari Tahun 1990-2007
Mohd Yahya Mohd Hussin, Fidlizan Muhammad, Salwa Amirah Awang
 
Perbankan dan kewangan Islam kini sudah sinonim dalam sistem kewangan di Malaysia. Langkah kerajaan memujudkan dwi perbankan (konvensional dan Islam) telah memberikan kemudahan dan alternatif khususnya kepada masyarakat Islam untuk melakukan muamalah selari dengan tuntutan ilahi. Kesedaran masyarakat berkaitan kelebihan dan daya saing produk perbankan Islam menyebabkan institusi perbankan konvensional mengambil langkah mewujudkan dwi sistem dalam institusi tersebut. Usaha ini telah memberikan persaingan sihat kepada institusi perbankan Islam untuk lebih meningkatkan daya saing produk yang ditawarkan, dan dalam masa yang sama memberi lebih pilihan kepada pengguna. Oleh itu, kajian ini akan menganalisa perkembangan arah aliran pembiayaan di bank Islam Malaysia berhad (bimb) dari tahun 1990 hingga 2007.
 
Risk Management And Portfolio Role: Conventional And Islamic Approach For Risk Diversification
Amina Omar Mahamud
 
One of the major advances in the investment field during the past few decades has been the recognition that the creation of an optimum investment portfolio is not simply a matter of combining numerous unique individual securities that have desirable risk – return characteristics. Specifically, it has been shown that an investor must consider the relationship among the investments to build an optimum portfolio that will meet investment objectives. The recognition of what is important in creating a portfolio was demonstrated in the derivation of portfolio theory. One basic assumption of portfolio theory is that as an investor you want to maximize the returns from total set of investments for a given level of risk. To adequately deal with such assumptions, certain ground rules must be laid. Risk management decisions, like all corporate decisions, should be based on a cost/benefit analysis for each feasible alternative. Risk is an element of life in this world for being ignorant of the future. It is also factor of investing that one should take time to understand prior to selecting any specific investment instruments or any new adventures. Many muslims misunderstand the concept of fate.

 
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