Title               : Problems and Prospects with the Education Policy in South Asia: Special Attention to Bangladesh

Author(s)     : Dr. Abu Musa Mohammad Arif Billah, University of Dhaka

Abstract    : Generally speaking, education is the backbone of a nation. Education is essential for making a healthy society as well as a progressive state. Proper education enlightens the individuals that allows such persons to achieve perfection. A perfect man is highly needed in order to make a perfect, enlightened society and eventually a state. All these are achievable with perfect education policy, comprising with adequate syllabus and curriculum as well as other logistic support such as: classroom atmosphere, library facilities and extra curriculum activities. In South Asia, however, there are many constraints in almost all public policy sectors, especially in education sector. The lack of required philosophical and technical knowledge and expertise left education sector behind for centuries now. In many denominators, the underlying situation is so crucial that it is not only harming the ongoing process of human development but also producing an unproductive and non-qualified graduates or educated class, which are actually good for nothing since they are not capable enough to contribute in creating a perfect or enlightened society. The paper attempts to address all the above issues meticulously and makes propositions for the solutions of overcoming the prevailing backward condition in the education policy of South Asia in general and Bangladesh in particular, using available primary and secondary sources of materials.

Title           : Education Intervention In Tertiary Institution: Managing Funds and Other Grants for Global Best Practices.

Author(s) : Dr. Abubakar Mohammed Sambo, Department of Political Science, Federal University Kashere & Mr. Abubakar Garba Mshelia,                            School of Social & Management Sciences, Adamawa State Polytechnic.

Abstract  : The Tertiary Education Trust Fund (Tetfund) formerly known as Education Trust Fund (ETF), was established by the federal government of Nigeria with the sole purpose of rehabilitation, restoration, and consolidation of Tertiary Education in Nigeria. At the initial inception, the ETF intervention was intended to be a special form of intervention in education –Primary, Secondary and Higher education for improved productivity in the teaching and Administrative profession of the educational sector, to enhance productivity. In 2011, the ETF law was repealed thereby establishing the Tertiary Education Trust fund which was a transformative intervention. Tetfund project in Nigeria has manifested itself as the umbrella for the transformation of Tertiary institutions. In Nigeria Tetfund emerged as a result of poor learning facilities, lack of good and conducive learning environment with an inadequate and skewed man power in our tertiary institutions. Given the impact of such funds and grants to tertiary institution, the interventions made by Tetfund are in the area of Man power development; Academic Staff Training & Development (AST&D), Conference Attendance (CA), Teaching Practice (TP), Research and Publications, Book Development for improved productivity. Despite the efforts made by Tetfund intervention, little is known about the perspective of funding and other grants for improve productivity through human capital development. The overall image that appeared from the literature of funding and other grants seems to be under a question mark. How well is Tetfund able to intervene in addressing the tertiary institutions demands in addressing the needs of these institutions and the ability of Tetfund in managing the funds in line with international best practices? This study, using system theory and structural functional analysis identifies the various problems associated with managing funding and Grants for Tertiary Education in Nigeria within the framework of global Best Practices.

Title          : Gender Norms, Double Standard and The Notions of Masculinity as Factors Which Determines The Type Of Non-Consensual Sexual             Behaviour Condoned In Nigeria.

Author(s)      : Dr. Florence Foluso Akanle, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti

Abstract       : The sexual culture determines the sexual or gender norms. Among the various factors which determine the sexual behavior that is how we feel and behave sexually is the culture. These beliefs provide the notions for non-consensual or violently imposed sexual acts. This research investigates the relationship between non-consensual sex and gender norms, power relation among youths in Nigeria. The study would also identify or explore the attitudes held by positive deviants (those who believe in egalitarian norms and display alternative notions of masculinity. The study population consist of all men in Nigeria whose age range are between 20 – 60years. The sample consists of 500 men drawn from the several populations of about 250 ethnic groups. The sampling technique used was stratified and simple random sampling techniques using age, religion, ethnic groups or cultural setting as strata’s gender norms questionnaire a self -constructed questionnaire which measures five aspects of gender norms in relation to sexuality were used to measure gender norms. The validity and reliability of the instrument was determined. The data generated was analyzed based on the analysis the research revealed that a strong relationship exist between gender norms and non-consensual sexual behaviour. Base on the findings it was concluded that the societal factors which influence men’s risk of committing rape include norms supportive of male superiority and sexual entitlement. Also weak laws and policies related to sexual violence and gender equality. Therefore in order to reduce or eliminate sexual violence or non-consensual sex, there would be a need to educate men to change the way they perceive the gender norms or gender equality between men and women.  

Title           : The Influence of Budgetary Participation, Budget Revision, and Budget Evaluation on Budget Absorption Performance (Case Study                       at the Working Unit of the Secretariat General of the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia)

Author(s) : Mr. Ari Wibowo, Secretariat General of the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia

Abstract : Reforms in the areas of budgeting in Indonesia began to be implemented starting in 2005 fiscal year with reference to the Act number 17 of 2013 on State Finance and Act number 25 of 2004 on National Development Planning System. The government later through Government Regulation No. 21 of 2004 concerning Preparation of Work Plan and Budget Ministry / Agency (RKA-KL) stated that the Work Plan and Budget were prepared using three approaches, namely: (1) Consolidated Budget; (2) Medium Term Expenditure Framework; and (3) Performance-Based Budgeting. Studies in this study conducted at the Secretariat General of the Ministry of Finance because the Secretariat General is a unit within the Ministry of Finance that already use performance-based budgeting system that is used in preparing, implementing, & evaluating budget management. Previous research related to budgeting conducted by Alim (2008) showed that there is an influence between participation, revision, & budget evaluation on managerial performance. Yuliantoro, Ritonga, & Darlis (2012), showed that the budgetary participation have significant positive effect on managerial performance. The research was conducted by quantitative descriptive method where the year of study was from 2015 until 2016. The data used in this research are from journals & books. The results of the research shows that all variables, budget participation (X1), budget revision (X2), and budget evaluation (X3) simultaneously have a significant effect on budget absorption performance (Y) of the working unit of Secretariat General of the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia.

Title           : The Politics of Malaysia’s National Automotive Policy Arrangements

Author(s) : Dr. Firdausi Suffian, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Abstract : Most Southeast Asian countries have liberalised their automotive sector to expand market access, promote foreign direct investments and encourage export-oriented activities. This is to exploit the benefits of global production network that requires pro-market reforms initiatives. In Malaysia, the automotive sector is one of the sectional interest of the government under the heavy industrialisation programme. The automotive sector is considered to have a wider spillover effect to modernise the country’s economy. This sector is highly protected ever since the formation of the national car project in the 1980s, however, the government could not operate in a protective environment for a long period. To attain greater market access, technological advancement and industrial accumulation, there is a need to liberalise the automotive sector. In 2006 National Automotive Policy (NAP) 2006 was introduced as part of the government pro-market reforms initiative. But the extent to which the liberalisation has taken place remains sceptical due to the presence of the national car and the protracted local vendors' interest. Hence, this paper attempts to explore the policy arrangements of the NAP. It is argued that Malaysia’s institutional setting has enabled policy actors to retain the interest of the domestic automotive manufacturers. Therefore this paper will highlight the policy arrangements taken place to protect the domestic automotive industry.

Title             : Emerging trends in 21st Century Education: the Malaysian perspectives

Author(s)   : Dr. Huzaina Halim, University of Malaya & Ms. Zulaikha Zulkifli, University of Malaya

Abstract    : With the advent of new technologies being infused in school curriculum, educators and school leaders are beginning to rethink all facets of data in the classroom. New, innovative methods of data collection are continually being developed, which offer new options for ongoing formative, culminating summative and alternative assessments. Although challenges in curriculum design may arise due to advanced technology integration, schools are nonetheless embracing the future. Creating a digital literacy curriculum is one of the merging trends in Malaysia. It can be based on students’ developmental stages, and educators should be cognizant of both the risks and myriad learning opportunities that technology integration and utilization in the classroom may provide. With increasing numbers of teachers using technology in the classroom and schools permitting students to become engaged with content via digital literacy, some schools are adopting formal digital literacy curriculum and digital literacy plans. This is also inline with Malaysian Education Blueprint which highlighted the 11 shifts to be achieved in 2025. This paper discusses how educators update their skills to remain in compliance with ethical and legal guidelines and become familiar with the latest standards where school districts are turning to self-directed, online modules to provide educators opportunities to complete interactive learning components to remain abreast of the latest developments in education. It also focuses on Malaysian educational context and highlights the challenges faced by educators in the era of globalization.